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  • #31
    Study:

    INNOVATIONS IN LIGHTING FOR PEDESTRIAN SAFETY AND WALKABILITY
    Presentation for the ITE Western District Annual Meeting, San Diego, June 2017 Frank Markowitz and Adam Smith
    San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency



    LIGHTING SAFETY BENEFITS AND COSTS

    The literature on lighting’s benefits shows that lighting improves pedestrian safety. Studies have demonstrated that lighting can substantially improve the nighttime pedestrian environment by reducing injures from collisions, reducing crime, and improving perceived walking comfort. Despite the clear benefits of lighting improvements, these can be expensive, especially when compared to other pedestrian safety improvements.

    SAFETY BENEFITS

    About two-thirds of pedestrian fatalities in the U.S. occur at night or under low-light conditions. Pedestrian fatalities are 3 to 6.75 times more likely at night, taking into account pedestrian volumes (Sullivan and Flanagan, 1999). Several studies have found that pedestrian injuries at nighttime are typically reduced by roughly half by illumination
    (Schwab et al., 1982, Elvik, 1995, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 1992).

    San Francisco’s innovative WalkFirst project ranked roadway lighting improvements as highly effective at improving pedestrian safety, medium cost, and long time frame (San Francisco City and County, 2014). The project’s toolkit webpage suggested that lighting improvements should be targeted especially to locations with a high nighttime crash profile and to complex intersections.

    A comprehensive review of 13 studies concluded that improved street lighting also significantly reduces crime (Welsh and Farrington, 200. Enhanced lighting may improve daytime personal security on affected blocks, perhaps by communicating to potential criminals that there is greater public attention to the location.

    Lighting is also a major factor in perceived walking comfort. “Low lighting” was one of the primary barriers Seattle residents cited as discouraging walking after dark (Seattle, 2012).

    COSTS

    Lighting improvements tend to be relatively expensive compared to other typical pedestrian improvements. For example, in San Francisco, pedestrian-scale lighting was estimated to cost $610,000 to furnish and install 34 poles spaced about 50 feet apart around a rail station (SFMTA, 2015). By comparison, in San Francisco, converting a crosswalk to more visible continental striping costs roughly $5,000, signal timing/phasing changes cost roughly $4,000 to $11,000 per intersection, curb bulb-outs are approximately $100,000 per corner, and installing a traffic signal is typically close to $400,000 per intersection (SFMTA, 2015a). (These comparison costs include soft costs like planning, design, and permits.)

    LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES

    “SMART LIGHTING”

    “Smart” (or adaptive) lighting has promise for safety and energy benefits based on limited studies. University of Nevada, Las Vegas, researchers found a statistically significant increase in driver yielding by using supplemental lighting for a crosswalk, triggered by automated detection of pedestrians. The University of California, Davis, cut energy costs by 50- 60% by using lighting on campus paths that adapts illumination levels to pedestrian activity (UC Davis, 2013).
    2

    https://www.westernite.org/annualmee...-Markowitz.pdf




    Detroit Streetlight Effort Dramatically Reduces Ped Deaths

    By Angie Schmitt
    Oct 4, 2018

    Detroit is seeing the light.

    A new report on streetlights — that most crucial, yet oft-overlooked infrastructure element — shows that pedestrians deaths plummeted in the Motor City from an average of 24 per year to just one, ...

    The results have been more than just illuminating. In 2017, there was just one pedestrian death at night in an unlighted area. And overall, they’re down 40 percent since their height in 2015.



    Comments:

    jcwconsult says:
    October 5, 2018 at 10:13 am

    Visibility (or conspicuity as the technical term) is a critical element in pedestrian safety after dark. NHTSA research shows that a high percentage of pedestrian fatalities occur at night. Many pedestrians could reduce their risks by wearing light colored and/or reflective clothing as many cyclists do today. This is obviously more critical in areas that do not have good street lighting.
    James C. Walker, National Motorists Association

    BWTrainer says:
    October 5, 2018 at 11:06 am

    Many drivers who hit and kill pedestrians could reduce their risks by SLOWING THE F DOWN ON A DARK STREET


    jcwconsult says:
    October 5, 2018 at 12:09 pm

    Very true, but I am only interested in realities – not wishful thinking behavior that does not and will not happen voluntarily. The fatality rate is now 1.16 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled.

    That means if you are in a car for about 15,000 miles a year, you will be in a crash with a fatality of a pedestrian, cyclist or vehicle occupant about once every 5,700 years. The risks on any one trip are so miniscule that to expect voluntary compliance of always driving a lot slower at night just in case a pedestrian in dark clothing will cross improperly is not realistic.

    James C. Walker, National Motorists Association

    ...

    BarbChamberlain says:
    October 5, 2018 at 3:12 pm

    Every person who gets out of a car becomes a pedestrian in that moment. Every place currently selling winter coats is selling racks and racks of black, charcoal gray, navy blue, and other dark colors.

    It is not realistic to tell people to buy special clothing...

    ...
    https://usa.streetsblog.org/2018/10/...street-lights/
    Bolding mine
    Last edited by KC; 03-08-2019, 09:36 AM.

    Comment


    • #32
      Whatever happened to "Stop, look, listen" and "Stop, look left, look right, look left again"? These are simple rules for pedestrians to follow, and work equally well in any conditions.

      Sorry, but if a person is going to blindly stride out from the sidewalk into traffic, well then . . .

      Point being, a person can stop on a dime. A driver can have all the vigilance in the world, but a moving ton of metal can't instantly stop.
      Nisi Dominus Frustra

      Comment


      • #33
        Originally posted by howie View Post
        Whatever happened to "Stop, look, listen" and "Stop, look left, look right, look left again"? These are simple rules for pedestrians to follow, and work equally well in any conditions.

        Sorry, but if a person is going to blindly stride out from the sidewalk into traffic, well then . . .

        Point being, a person can stop on a dime. A driver can have all the vigilance in the world, but a moving ton of metal can't instantly stop.
        Basic self-defence. I watch pedestrians cross and often they fail to even bother to make eye contact with me. A failure of one of the oldest, most basic guidelines.

        However, who even teaches that stuff anymore? Just like the most basic of driving rules. I just don’t think anyone is even taught those rules in driver training because so few people seem knowledgeable/ capable of many basic rules. (Turning a corner? It’s curb to curb and centre to centre - no changing lanes until one is through the intersection. Instead the practice is to create unpredictability if not havoc at intersections. )

        As an aside, look around at the drivers stopped at intersections. You’ll see they too are mostly just staring straight ahead like zombies.
        Last edited by KC; 03-08-2019, 12:03 PM.

        Comment


        • #34
          Originally posted by howie View Post
          Whatever happened to "Stop, look, listen" and "Stop, look left, look right, look left again"? These are simple rules for pedestrians to follow, and work equally well in any conditions.

          Sorry, but if a person is going to blindly stride out from the sidewalk into traffic, well then . . .

          Point being, a person can stop on a dime. A driver can have all the vigilance in the world, but a moving ton of metal can't instantly stop.
          ..because in 2019...common sense is not only uncommon, but it is the era where people believe they have no personal responsibility, and that everyone else needs to look out for them...

          ...rather than the theory of logical consequences which dictates that if you are not careful, if you race a train to a crossing, and it is a tie....you lose.
          President and CEO - Airshow.

          Comment


          • #35
            Originally posted by RichardS View Post
            Originally posted by howie View Post
            Whatever happened to "Stop, look, listen" and "Stop, look left, look right, look left again"? These are simple rules for pedestrians to follow, and work equally well in any conditions.

            Sorry, but if a person is going to blindly stride out from the sidewalk into traffic, well then . . .

            Point being, a person can stop on a dime. A driver can have all the vigilance in the world, but a moving ton of metal can't instantly stop.
            ..because in 2019...common sense is not only uncommon, but it is the era where people believe they have no personal responsibility, and that everyone else needs to look out for them...

            ...rather than the theory of logical consequences which dictates that if you are not careful, if you race a train to a crossing, and it is a tie....you lose.
            Hmm. Interesting idea. So it’s like this: my belief that it’s the drivers responsibility is so strong that I blindly accept the risk of death. And then as a driver my sense of entitlement caused by every past pedestrian holding off crossing until I drove by causes me to believe I get away with it with impunity.

            Seems very irrational yet we all know how people that can’t weigh the most basic risks very well. It could also be that pedestrians and drivers are each lulling the other into a false sense of security.
            Last edited by KC; 03-08-2019, 03:21 PM.

            Comment


            • #36
              I don't know if it is lulling each other into some false sense of security; however, the squishy fleshy thingy has a much better chance to see the big steel steamroller clone than the other way around. Most pedestrians refuse to wear bright clothing (not fashionable), so they are often unseen. It is worse at night and with the new cars and their nuclear power plant glowing dashboards reflecting on the window.

              I always looked at it this way. In this situation, might makes right. Yes, drivers must yield the right of way to pedestrians, but I make damn sure the driver sees me. I never race a car to a crosswalk, again, for if it is a tie, I lose.

              My last words won't be, "but I had the right of way...*ACK*" Yeah, some epitaph.
              President and CEO - Airshow.

              Comment


              • #37
                Originally posted by RichardS View Post
                I don't know if it is lulling each other into some false sense of security; however, the squishy fleshy thingy has a much better chance to see the big steel steamroller clone than the other way around. Most pedestrians refuse to wear bright clothing (not fashionable), so they are often unseen. It is worse at night and with the new cars and their nuclear power plant glowing dashboards reflecting on the window.

                I always looked at it this way. In this situation, might makes right. Yes, drivers must yield the right of way to pedestrians, but I make damn sure the driver sees me. I never race a car to a crosswalk, again, for if it is a tie, I lose.

                My last words won't be, "but I had the right of way...*ACK*" Yeah, some epitaph.

                “Here's how to adjust the instrument panel lights properly: ...”


                Night Panel
                (“a notable Saab innovation derived from the aeronatics industry.”)


                Free Night Vision for Drivers Is Just a Switch-Flip Away: Mechanic's Diary

                “few realize that you don't need these gauges glowing like vial of plutonium to see them at night.

                Here's how to adjust the instrument panel lights properly: ...”


                “But Saab has got my all-time favorite interior lighting feature: the "night panel" ...”

                https://www.popularmechanics.com/car...a2703/4254308/



                Night Panel

                1993 Saab implemented Night Panel. The Saab Night Panel, formerly known as the [b]Saab Black Panel _/b]as depicted above in the 2005 Saab 9-3 Sport Sedan television advertisement for the U.S. market, is a notable Saab innovation derived from the aeronatics industry.

                The Saab Black Panel was first developed in 1993...”

                https://www.saabplanet.com/night-panel/

                Last edited by KC; 03-08-2019, 06:15 PM.

                Comment


                • #38
                  Thanks for the blinding insight into the glaringly obvious since I've been driving for years...mine are at a minimum when I drive. ...always have been...

                  ....yet the highly reflective glass on the HUD-equipped cars, especially earlier models of the Lincoln, were annoyingly reflective even at minimal lighting.
                  President and CEO - Airshow.

                  Comment


                  • #39
                    Originally posted by RichardS View Post
                    Thanks for the blinding insight into the glaringly obvious since I've been driving for years...mine are at a minimum when I drive. ...always have been...

                    ....yet the highly reflective glass on the HUD-equipped cars, especially earlier models of the Lincoln, were annoyingly reflective even at minimal lighting.
                    I sense that you’re glaring at me.

                    Comment

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